This lesson introduces students to the microbial world and provides insight on the function of microbes by examining bacteria that both help and harm cows. Although multiple bacteria inhabit the cow’s rumen, this lesson focuses on two harmless microbes, Ruminococcus and Selenomonas, which break down cellulose and starch in plant matter, respectively. These bacteria obtain nutrients from the cow’s diet, and the cow gains energy from the products of bacterial metabolism. Therefore, these bacterial species are in a symbiotic relationship with the cow. Other bacterial species can harm cows. Such is the case with Escherichia coli, a non-ruminant bacterium that can cause the udder infection known as mastitis.

Learning Objectives

At completion of this activity, learners will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the term microorganism.
  2. Explain the effect of ruminant bacteria on foods.
  3. Differentiate three bacterial species based on cell shape and location in a cow’s rumen.
  4. Explain the difference between symbiosis and pathogenesis.

Student Background

Students should have some understanding about the basic needs of mammals: food, shelter, water, oxygen, and sunlight. They should also know that livestock are able to feed on grass and silage as their main dietary component. These needs will be extended to note their differences and similarities, and the needs of microbes that live in the rumen or on injured udders. Students should also have a general knowledge about the basics of milk production, i.e., the sources of milk and how milk is collected. This activity will extend information about milk production and look at how microbes aid or deter in this process. Students will also use a microscope to observe the different microorganisms that can exist in dairy cows.

Science Standards

This lesson addresses National Science Education Standards (1996):