The final stage of bacterial respiration involves a series of membrane-embedded components collectively known as the electron transport chain. The final step in the chain may involve the use of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of cytochrome c while reducing oxygen to form water. The oxidase test often uses a reagent, tetra-methyl- p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, as an artificial electron donor for cytochrome c. When the reagent is oxidized by cytochrome c, it changes from colorless to a dark blue or purple compound, indophenol blue. The test can be used to distinguish Neisseria gonorrhoeae (oxidase positive) from Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. (oxidase negative).