Cover of Strengthening the "Ph." in the Ph.D.: the Role of Scientific Societies in Graduate Training

Graduate education in microbiology and other biological sciences has produced the scientific cadres that ushered in a revolution in medicine, agriculture, and industrial biotechnology, which has already brought great benefit to humanity. However, the graduate education enterprise is under pressure and criticism for overcapacity, for producing scientists who are too specialized, and for not being conducive to the training of versatile scientists capable of operating successfully in many parts of society, where scientific know how is desirable and needed. These challenges provide opportunities for reforming the graduate education enterprise to better align it with the needs of society and science in the 21st century.


Strengthening the “Ph” in the Ph.D.: The Role of Professional Societies in Graduate Training: Report on an American Academy of Microbiology Colloquium held in Nov. 2017. Washington (DC): American Society for Microbiology; 2019.

Contact Information

Academy Staff,