Image of the globe with select data. See bullets below for data.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is spread through contact with the bodily fluids of an HIV-positive person, such as through sex or sharing injection drug equipment. If left untreated, HIV can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the late stage of HIV infection that occurs when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the virus. There is no effective cure for HIV, but with proper medical care, it can be controlled.​ Between 2020 and 2021, the number of new global HIV infections dropped by 3.6%. This is the smallest annual decline in HIV cases that has been reported since 2016.

HIV Testing and Diagnostics

Editors in Conversation: Avoiding HIV False Positives

Feb. 24, 2023

Webinar Series: Sexually Transmitted Infections Testing: What's Old Is New

This 5-part webinar series provides an overview of the recent advances made in the diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), with a focus on emerging STI threats, including "Changing Times: Diagnostic Testing and Monitoring for HIV.” Purchase price includes unlimited access to the webinars through Aug. 31, 2024 and continuing education (CE) credit.

Article: Unique Challenges, Unique Solutions: Tackling HIV Testing

Reducing HIV/AIDS is a challenge across the globe. Understanding that barriers are as unique as the locations and people of the world is key.

Lesson Plan: Interpretation of ELISA and Western Blot Assays for HIV Infection Status

Working in pairs, students use an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen sera for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Guideline: Limitations for the Use of HIV-1 Western Blot in Plasma/Serum

ASM and the Association of Public Health Laboratories drafted a document that addresses the limitations of the CDC laboratory algorithm for the diagnosis of HIV, published in June 2014.

Progress Toward 90-90-90 UNAIDS Goals

In 2016, the United Nations General Assembly committed to ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030 using benchmarks meant to galvanize action in closing gaps in HIV testing, the number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the number of patients maintaining viral suppression. This plan, put forth by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), set ambitious interim goals to be reached by 2020: 90% of HIV infected individuals should know their HIV+ status, 90% of those who know their status should be receiving ART treatment and 90% of those in treatment should have low enough viral loads to be considered virally suppressed.

UNAIDS graphic
Visual representation of UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets.
Source: UNAIDS

Since the establishment of these goals, remarkable, but highly unequal, progress has been made, most notably in the expansion of access to antiretroviral therapy. However, because the achievements have not been shared equally within and between countries, the global HIV targets set for 2020 were not reached, according to UNAIDS report.

In June 2021, United Nations General Assembly High-Level Meeting on AIDS adopted a new Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS: Ending Inequalities and Getting on Track to End AIDS by 2030. The declaration was based on evidence, grounded in human rights, included new targets and will serve as an important road map to advance the global HIV response over the next 5 years.

In July 2022, UNAIDS released a global AIDS update entitled, "In Danger," which reported that ​progress in prevention and treatment is faltering around the world, putting millions of people in grave danger. The report stated that disruptions over the past few years (e.g., the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine war) in addition to inequalities and discrimination, stigmatization and criminalization of key populations, has threatened progress toward meeting the new goals that were established in 2021. 

But there is hope. According to the 2023 UNAIDS Global AIDS Update Report, fewer people acquired HIV in 2022 than at any point since the late 1980s. The report highlights that creating a successful HIV response depends on forming partnerships between countries and communities, providing accessible HIV prevention and treatment services, removing societal and structural inequalities to HIV-related services and building and maintaining strong political commitment, among other factors.

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